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Corn: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition
Corn: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition
“…an indispensable resource to its targeted readers - scientists who are experts in the subject matter.”
—Journal of Agricultural and Food Information

Item No. 27330
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Corn: Chemistry and Technology, 2nd Edition provides a broad perspective of knowledge on corn from 36 expert agronomists, food scientists, and geneticists. This 892 page book is an encyclopedic storehouse of comprehensive information on all aspects of the world’s largest crop (in metric tons grown). 

The second edition is 40% larger than the popular first edition. Many new value-added uses for corn are discussed including: corn fiber oil (a highly nutritious oil packed with heart-healthy phytosterols), starches modified for specific food applications, and nonfood functions and non-feed biobased products to replace non-renewable resources. Three important new chapters have been added, focusing on genetic modifications of corn, popcorn and ornamental corn, and mycotoxins in corn. All of the previous chapter topics have been completely rewritten and updated with new findings, new approaches, and new references. Important traditional references to classic studies have been retained, allowing researchers quick access to both traditional and new reference citations.

Editors White and Johnson have amassed the largest collection of peer-reviewed research on the topic of corn chemistry and technology in a single sourcebook. Like the first edition, it has become the standard industry resource.

The book will serve as a primary reference for all aspects of corn chemistry and technology and will be invaluable to academic, industrial, and government scientists in the following research areas and disciplines:

  • Food Science
  • Agronomy
  • Plant Breeding
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Genetics ·Harvesting
  • Entomology
  • Food Safety and Mycotoxin Control
  • Mycology
  • Quality Assurance
  • Plant Pathology
  • Microbiology
  • Nutrition
  • Crop and Grain Science
  • Chemistry
  • Lipids
  • Protein
  • Starches
  • Sweeteners
  • Processing
  • Economics
  • Animal Feed
  • Industrial Uses and more

Corn: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition


Corn Perspective and Culture

Description and Adaptation
Origin and History
Production and Use
Corn Culture

Growth and Development
Climatic Requirements
Soil and Crop Management
Pest Management

Summary


Breeding, Genetics, and Seed Corn Production

Introduction

Kernel Structure
Endosperm Dosage Effect
Endosperm Variation

Progress In Corn Improvement

Early Inbreeding and Hybridization Experiment
Use of Open-Pollinated Varieties, 1910–1936
Introduction of Hybrids, 1937–1965
Single-Cross and Modified Single-Cross Hybrids, 1966 to the Present
Host-Plant Resistance

Breeding Techniques for Selection of Improved Genotypes

Mass Selection
Random Selfed Lines
S1 and S2 Line Selection
Recurrent Selection
Extraction of Inbred Lines from Populations Improved by Recurrent Selection
Inbred Line Development from Recycling Existing Lines or from Inbred Line Families
Evaluation of Experimental Material

Kernel Modification Through Breeding

Single-Mutant Endosperm Genes
Altering Kernel Composition and Integrity by Selection

Molecular Genetic Tools And Quantitative Traits

Molecular Markers for Corn Research
Genetic Maps for Corn Research
Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis in Corn
Current Trends in QTL Analysis

Seed Production

Crossing Techniques
Isolation Requirements
Seed Conditioning
Seed Classification
Contract Production


Description, Development, Structure, and Composition of the Corn Kernel

Gross Structural Features

General Description
Hardness Differences Among Corn Classes
Nutritionally Enhanced and Specialty Food and Industrial Corns
Color

Physical Properties

General Properties
Moisture
Thermal Properties

Kernel Development

Pollination and Early Growth
Endosperm Development
Germ Development
Pericarp Development

Composition of the Mature Kernel

Whole Kernel

Endosperm

Starchy Endosperm
Peripheral Endosperm
Aleurone
Hilar Layer
Germ
Pericarp

Summary


Harvesting and Postharvest Management

Harvesting Systems

Harvest Systems Defined by End Uses for Corn
Combine Harvesting Corn for Grain
What is Special About Corn Combines?
Categories of Corn Combines
Combine Performance Criteria
Corn Heads or Platforms on Combines and Pickers
Threshing
Separating
Cleaning
Materials Transport
Coordinated Functions
Spreading Material Other than Grain
The Harvest and Kernel Quality
Managing Field Operations
Cleanout and Combine Hygiene, Fires
Cost Management: Private Ownership Versus Contracting
Control and Information Systems
The Harvester as a Tool in Precision Farming

Corn Preservation

Moisture Content
Drying Ear Corn in Cribs
Forced-Air Corn Drying
High-Moisture Corn Preservation

Handling Systems

Ear Handling
Shelled Corn Handling

Storage and Storage Management

Ear Corn Storage


Measurement and Maintenance of Corn Quality

U.S. Grades and Standards

History, Classes, and U.S. Grades
Importance of Grades in Corn Marketing
Alternative Marketing Channels
ISO 9000 Certification

Grades and Standards of Other Countries

History of Grades and Standards for Export Trade
Corn Grading Factors of Other Countries

Sampling

Accuracy of Sample/Grade Determinations

Moisture

Moisture Shrink
Reference Moisture Methods
Moisture Meters
Individual Kernel Moisture Measurement

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Broken Corn, Foreign Material, and Dust

BCFM
Dust

Density

True Density
Bulk Density (Test Weight)
Porosity

Hardness

Significance
Measurements

Other Physical Quality Tests

Pericarp Damage
Stress Cracks
Breakage Susceptibility
1,000-Kernel Weights

Fungal Invasion

Damage Grade Factor
Role of Microorganisms in Quality Deterioration

Quality in Corn Utilization

Wet Milling
Ethanol Processing
Beverage Alcohol
Dry Milling
Alkaline Processing
Feed Manufacturing
Seed Corn

Conclusions and Trends


Effect and Control of Insects Affecting Corn Quality

Important Insects Affecting Corn Quality

Development of Insects in Stored Grain

Developmental Stages
Factors Affecting Development

Sampling and Measurement of Insect Populations

Preventive Measures and Control of Insects in Corn Storage

Preventive Methods Before Binning
Preventive Measures During Binning
Preventive Measure After Binning
Control Measures After Binning
Additional Alternatives to Traditional Pesticides

Summary


Economics of Production, Marketing, and Utilization

Trends in Supply and Production Costs

Production Location and Yield
Production Costs and Returns

Trends in Utilization

Domestic Livestock Feed
Food and Industrial Products
Seed Use
Exports

The Corn Marketing System

Overview of Marketing Flows
Farm Drying and Conditioning
Farm Storage and Marketing
Commercial Handling and Storage

Domestic Transportation and Flow Patterns

Modal Shares
Movements to Domestic Markets
Movements to Export Regions

Trends in World Coarse Grain and Corn Markets

Major Coarse Grain Markets
Corn Supply and Demand
Major Competing Exporters
Implications of Trade Agreements for U.S. Exports
Impact of Biotechnology on World Trade

Corn Pricing System

Organized Grain Exchanges
Pricing Practices at Country Elevators
Price Determination for Corn

Government Programs Affecting the Industry

Price-Support Programs
Production Adjustment Programs
Commodity Storage Programs
Commodity-Disposal Programs
Production Flexibility and the Freedom to Farm

Summary


Carbohydrates of the Kernel

General Considerations

Transfer into the Kernel
Distribution Within the Kernel
Endosperm Carbohydrates

Simple Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides
Disaccharides and Trisaccharides
Sugar Alcohols
Phytate
Metabolic Intermediates

Complex Carbohydrates—Structural

Cell Walls
Cellulose
Pentosans
Other Cell Wall Components

Complex Carbohydrates—Storage

Water-Soluble Polysaccharides
Starch

Summary


Proteins of the Kernel

Protein Fractionation Overview

Nomenclature for Corn Protein

Endosperm Proteins

Prolamins and Protein Body Components
Nonprolamin Proteins

Embryo Proteins

Nutrition of Corn Protein

Uses of Corn Protein

Food and Feed
Industrial Uses


Lipids of the Kernel

Oil Content

Effect of Agronomic Practices on Oil Content
Genetic Control of Oil Content
Value of High-Oil Corn in Animal Feeding

Fatty Acid Composition

Effect of Agronomic Practices on Fatty Acid Composition
Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Composition

Lipid Class Composition

Triacylglycerols (TAGs)
Phosphoglycerides
Glycosylglycerides
Glycosylsphingolipids
Phytosterols
Hydrocarbons
Polyisoprenoid Alcohols
Waxes and Cutin
Carotenoids
Tocols
Other Phenols

Distribution of Lipids in the Corn Kernel

Dissected Grain
Corn Fiber Oil
Starch Lipids

Enzymes and Hormones

The Future


Corn Dry Milling: Processes, Products, and Applications

History of Corn Dry Milling

Industry Overview

Dry-Milling Processes

Full-Fat Milling Process
Bolted Milling Process
Tempering-Degerming Milling Process

Dry-Milled Products

Categories and Composition
Commercial Applications
RTE Breakfast Cereals
Brewing Adjuncts
Extruded and Sheeted Snacks
Breadings, Batters, and Prepared Mixes
Fortified Foods
Nonfood Applications

Future Trends and Developments


Wet Milling: The Basis for Corn Biorefineries

Current Wet-Milling Practices

Grain Drying, Storage, and Handling
Cleaning
Steeping
Separation of Kernel Components
Feed Production
Germ Processing

Process Management

Automation
Utilities
Wastewater
Air Pollution Control

Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Simulation of Corn Wet Milling

Laboratory Wet-Milling Procedures
Pilot-Plant Wet-Milling Procedures

Corn Varieties Processed Commercially

Normal Corn
Identity-Preserved Corn

Yields, Production, and Marketing of Products

Alternative Corn Fractionation Processes
Westfalia Process
Steeping Grits
Alternative Steeping Practices
Intermittent Milling and Dynamic Steeping Process
Alkali Wet Milling
Sequential Extraction Processing
Membrane Filtration
Decolorized Corn Gluten Meal
Corn Fiber Utilization
Processing Transgenic Corn for Industrial Enzymes and Specialty Chemicals


Food Use of Whole Corn and Dry-Milled Fractions

Traditional Corn Foods

Food Uses of Dry-Milled Fractions

Cornmeal
Corn Flour
Flaking Grits
Breakfast Foods
Corn Flake Production
Extruded Snacks
Arepa Flour from Grits
Brewing
Distilled Alcoholic Beverages

Alkaline-Cooked Products

Lime-Cooked Products
Industrial Tortilla Production
Fried Snacks
Nixtamalized Dry Masa Flours
Hominy
Fried Nixtamal and Related Products

Specialty Corns

Food-Grade White and Yellow Corns
Sweet and Green Corn
Baby Corn
Popcorn
Quality Protein Maize
Blue Corn
Cuzco Corn

Changes in Corn Kernel Structure During Lime Cooking

Nutritional Value of Corn Products

Toxins and Human Health

Future of Corn Foods


Sweet Corn

Origin and History

Genetic Basis of Sweet Corn

Endosperm Mutants
Other Quality Factors

Breeding

Methods
Pest Resistance

Production of Sweet-Corn Seed

Growing High-Sugar Sweet Corn Seed
Harvesting High-Sugar Sweet Corn Seed
Conditioning High-Sugar Seed

Production and Utilization of Sweet Corn

Production and Trade
Utilization

Marketing Sweet Corn

Summary


Nutritional Properties and Feeding Value of Corn and Its By-Products

Nutritional Value of Corn Proteins

Normal and High Protein Corn
High-Lysine Corn and Synthetic Lysine

Nutritional Value of Corn Lipids

Corn Oil
Carotenoids

Vitamins

Minerals

Antinutrients

Corn Feed Co-Products from Food Processes

Corn Wet-Milling Feed Products

Corn Gluten Feed
Corn Gluten Meal
Condensed Fermented Corn Extractives (Steep Liquor)

The Distilling Industry

Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains
Distiller’s Solubles

Corn Dry Milling

Process
Hominy Feed


Corn Starch Modification and Uses

Important Physicochemical Properties of Corn Starch

Basic Molecular Characteristics of Corn Starch
Behavior of Corn Starch Granules in Water
Viscosity Characteristics of Corn Starch Pastes

Objectives of Modification

Characterization of Modified Starches

Methods for the Manufacture of Modified Starches

Cross-Linking
Substitution
Acid Thinning
Bleaching or Oxidation
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chemically Modified Corn Starches
Cyclodextrins
Physical Modification

Corn Starch Utilization

Food Utilization
Pharmaceutical
Functional Fiber and Resistant Starch
Corn Starch Utilization in Paper
Corn Starch Utilization in Adhesives
Starch As a Source of Chemicals

Future of Starch Utilization

Corn Sweeteners

Enzymes Used in the Corn Sweetener Process

Glucoamylase (Amyloglucosidase)
Fungal - Amylase
Pullulanase
Bacterial - Amylase
Amylase
Glucose Isomerase

Process Overview

Corn Syrups
Maltodextrins
Dextrose
High-Fructose Corn Syrups
Liquid and Crystalline Fructose

Regulatory Definitions

Important Properties and Measurements of Corn Sweeteners

Carbohydrate Profile
Dextrose Equivalent
Solids
Viscosity
Sweetness
Color
Fermentability
Freezing Point Depression
Boiling Point Elevation
Humectancy and Hygroscopicity
Crystallization
Water Activity

Applications of Corn Sweeteners

Beverages
Confections
Baking
Ice Cream
Brewing


Corn Oil: Composition, Processing, and Utilization

Production and Markets

Composition and Characteristics of Corn Oil

Recovery of Crude Oil

Corn Oil Processing

Crude Corn Oil
Quality Analyses for Corn Oil

Processing Corn Oil Co-Products

Corn Lecithin
Soapstock
Vegetable Oil Distillate

Handling

Storage
Loadout and Shipping
Prevention of Oxidation

Nutrition

Uses and Applications
Margarines
Frying and Salad Oils
Other Uses
Corn Fiber Oil
Corn Bran Oil

Trends and Conclusions


Fermentation Processes and Products

Ethanol Production

Raw Materials
Processing
Conversion/Saccharification
Fermentation
Yeast Physiology and Metabolism
Yields and Efficiencies
Distillation
Feed Co-Products
Process Data

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Citric Acid Production

Newer Bioconversions

Economic Impact


Applications of Corn Stover and Fiber

The Corn Biomass Resource

Corn Biomass Composition

Overview of Biological Processing of Corn Biomass

Biological Processing Steps

Feedstock Storage and Handling
Biomass Pretreatment
Cellulase Production
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose
Fermentation of Sugar to Ethanol
Fermentation of Sugar to Chemicals and Materials
Lignin Utilization
Environmental Considerations

Economics of Biological Conversion

Benefits

Farm Income
Energy Security and Trade Deficit
Reduction of Greenhouse Gas
Solid Waste Disposal
Air and Water Pollution

Other Uses of Corn Biomass

Summary


Genetic Modifications of Corn

Mutagenesis

Radiation
Chemical
Use of In-Vitro Culture
Transposable Elements

Production of Doubled Haploids

In-Vivo Production Via Genetic Methods
Use of In-Vitro Culture Techniques

Transformation

Electroporation and Polyethylene Glycol Treatment
Particle Bombardment
Whiskers-Mediated Transformation
Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation
Other Considerations of Transformation

Genetic Modification Through Biotechnology

Input Traits
Output Traits

Summary


Popcorn

History

Ancient
In the United States

The Popcorn Plant

Botanical Description
Morphological Description

The Popcorn Kernel

Visual Appearance
Types of Popcorn Flakes
Structure and Physical Properties
Composition
Popping

Genetic Improvement and Agronomic Production

Popcorn Breeding
Growing Popcorn

Cleaning, Conditioning, Storage, and Utilization

Cleaning
Conditioning
Storage
Popping Expansion

Marketing and Distribution

Summary


Mycotoxins in Corn—Occurrence, Impact, and Management

Toxigenic Fungi in Corn

Fusarium
Aspergillus
Penicillium
Stenocarpella

Major Mycotoxins in Corn

Fumonisins
Trichothecenes
Zearalenone
Other Fusarium Toxins
Aflatoxins and Other Aspergillus Toxins
Penicillium Toxins

Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn Products

Fumonisins
Trichothecenes
Zearalenone
Other Fusarium Toxins
Aflatoxins and Other Aspergillus Toxins
Mycotoxins and Corn Silage

Detection of Mycotoxins

Sample Selection and Preparation

Analysis of Mycotoxins

Extraction
Cleanup
Mycotoxin Determination

Management of Mycotoxins in Corn

Preharvest
Harvest and Drying
Postharvest Management
Detoxification

Summary

“…an indispensable resource to its targeted readers - scientists who are experts in the subject matter.”
—Journal of Agricultural and Food Information
Publish Date: 2003
Format: 6" x 9" hardcover
ISBN: 978-1-891127-33-5
Pages: 892
Images: 226 black and white images
Publication Weight: 4 lbs

Edited by Pamela J. White and Lawrence A. Johnson

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