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OATS: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition
OATS: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition
Announcing the first major revision of Oats: Chemistry and Technology in Two Decades!
Item No. 27649
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For the first major update of this topic in 21 years, editors Webster and Wood have gathered an elite group of internationally recognized experts. This new edition addresses all aspects of oat chemistry, processing, nutrition, and plant genetics. It reflects the considerable changes in the science and food uses of oats that have occurred during the last two decades.

Each chapter presents an in-depth review of a specific research area complete with an extensive bibliography. The book provides an important summary of oat nutritional research and associated health claims that have been granted in recognition of the nutritional benefits associated with oat consumption. The individual chapters on component chemistry and functionality provide an excellent resource for product developers in their quest to design new, healthy, oat-based food products. The chapters on oat molecular biology and oat breeding coupled with the extensive works on oat nutrition provide direction to researchers interested in developing oats with enhanced nutrition. 

Oats: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition, is the only up-to-date review of oat chemistry and technology and will be a valuable resource for food science professionals including nutritionists, cereal chemists, plant biochemists, plant breeders, molecular biologists, grain millers, and product development and research scientists.

Improve Your Knowledge About This Super Grain

  • Covers all areas of oat technology - Single source provides in-depth review of all aspects of oat technology.
  • Provides an excellent source of oat nutritional information - Includes details of oat nutritional studies and potential health claims with a special emphasis on ß-glucans.
  • Offers authoritative descriptions of oat composition and functional properties - Provides researchers and food scientists with key chemical and application information.
  • Highlights oat improvement opportunities - Breeding and molecular information provides researchers direction on oat improvement opportunities.
  • Updates our knowledge of oat-processing technology - Provides in-depth discussion of oat milling and oat fractionation.
  • Demystifies oat phenolics - Provides a peer-reviewed, in-depth discussion of oat phenolic chemistry and functional attributes.

OATS: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition


CHAPTER 1

World Oat Production, Trade, and Usage

Production
Yields
Trade
Economic Value
Usage

Feed Use
Human Consumption

Grading Standards
Key Government Policy

EU Export Subsidies
EU CAP Reform
U.S. Loan Rates

Future Trends


CHAPTER 2

Oat Breeding

Genetic Resources Breeding Objectives

Regional Adaptability
Grain Yield
Resistance to Lodging
Disease and Pest Resistance
Winter Hardiness
Drought Tolerance
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Breeding for Sustainability
Milling Quality
Health Benefits for Consumers
Taste and Texture Benefits for Consumers
Premium Feed Quality
Fodder Oats

Breeding Methods

Use of Molecular Genetics

Funding of Breeding and Associated Research


CHAPTER 3

Hulless Oat Development, Applications, and Opportunities

Breeding

Covered (Husked) Oats
Hulless (Naked) Oats
Genetics
Incomplete Expression of Hullessness
Improving the Expression of Hulless Genes
Variation in Floral Morphology
Rachilla Length
Variation and Modification of Groat Morphology
Preharvest Sprouting
Diseases

Commercial Production and Uses

Harvesting
Grain Storage
Special Processing of Hulless Oats
Uses of Hulless Oats in Food
Use of Hulless Oats in Animal Feed

Nonfood Uses for Hulless Oats
Summary
Future Hulless Oat Development, Applications, and Opportunities


CHAPTER 4

Molecular Genetics of Quality in Oats

Genetic Mapping and QTL Analysis in Oats

Recombination Mapping
Recombination Mapping in Diploid Oats
Recombination Mapping in Hexaploid Oats
Comparative Mapping
Physical Mapping
Chromosome-Specific Libraries
QTL Analysis

Molecular Genetics of Chemical Composition

Oil Content
Beta-Glucan Content
Protein Content
Other Quality Traits Based on Chemical Composition

Genetics of Physical Kernel Traits and Milling Quality
Genetics of Disease Resistance
Genetics of Agronomic Traits

Grain Yield
Heading Date
Other Agronomic Traits

Utilization of Molecular Markers

User-Friendly Molecular Markers
Fingerprinting and Molecular-Marker-Assisted Breeding
Interspecific Crosses and Doubled Haploids

Oat Tissue Culture

Development and Enhancement of Oat Tissue Culture
Tissue-Culture-Induced Variation in Oats
Role of Oat Tissue Culture in Grain Quality Enhancement

Oat Transformation

Development of Oat Transformation Systems
Applications of Genetic Engineering to Study and Enhance Grain Quality
Functional Genomics of Oats


CHAPTER 5

Microstructure and Chemistry of the Oat Kernel

Analytical Techniques

Microscopic Techniques
Spectroscopic Techniques

Structure and Chemistry of the Mature Oat

Hull
Bran
Starchy Endosperm
Germ
Summary


CHAPTER 6

Nutrient Composition and Nutritional Quality of Oats and Comparisons with Other Cereals

Background

Oat Production and Consumption
Cereals in Health and Disease
Oat Milling
Nutrient Composition vs. Nutritional Quality

Natural Variation in Nutrient Composition
Proximate Constituents

Methodological Considerations
Proximate Values

Energy Content
Fatty Acid Composition
Dietary Fiber Components

Solubility and Monosaccharide Composition
Glucan
Fructans

Micronutrient Composition

Minerals
Vitamins

Nutritional Quality

Nutrient Density Scores
Protein Quality
Digestibility
Availability

Oat Bran and Wheat Bran
Other Minor Components
Oats and Celiac Disease
Overview


CHAPTER 7

Oat Starch: Physicochemical Properties and Function

Isolation and Purification of Oat Starch
Chemical Composition of Oat Starch

Noncarbohydrate Component
Carbohydrate Components

Physical Properties and Granule Morphology

Granule Type, Size, and Size Distribution
X-Ray Diffraction Patterns and Relative Crystallinity

Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Oat Starch

Gelatinization Properties
Swelling Power and Amylose Leaching
Viscosity, Pasting, and Paste Properties
Susceptibility of Oat Starch to Acid and Enzyme Hydrolysis

Oat Starch in Food and Other Industries
Future Work


CHAPTER 8

Storage Proteins

Classification and Solubility Fractionation
Characterization

Amino Acid Composition
Isolation and Physical Properties

Synthesis and Cellular Location

Synthesis
Location
Protein Bodies

Genetic Effects

Storage Protein Genes
Control of Gene Expression
Genotypic Differences and Inheritance

Development

Seed Maturation
Germination
Proteolytic Enzymes

Environmental Effects

Climate
Fertility
Diseases

Food, Feed, and Functionality

Nutritional Value of Oat Protein
Protein Concentrates

Summary


CHAPTER 9

Oat Lipids, Enzymes, and Quality

Lipid Content and Lipid Composition

Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition
Lipid Class Composition
Lipid Synthesis in Oats
Lipid Content and Agricultural and Quality Variables
Effect of Growing Conditions on Lipid Content
Effect of Cultivar on Oat Lipids
Heritability of Oat Lipids

Localization of Lipids in Oat Hull and Kernel
Starch Lipids
Analysis of Total Lipids and Starch Lipids
Lipid-Related Enzymes

Lipase
The Oxidative Enzymes Lipoxygenase and Lipoperoxidase

Oat Antioxidants and Lipid Stability

Lipophilic Antioxidants
Other Antioxidants

Processing and Storage

Dehulling and Kernel Breakage
Steaming and Kilning
Fractionation
Extrusion
Germination and Malting
Changes in Oat Lipids During Storage

Utilization of Oat Lipids and Lipid-Related Enzymes

Use of Oat Oil
Oat Lipase and Peroxygenase


CHAPTER 10

Oat Phenolics: Biochemistry and Biological Functionality

Free Phenolic Acids and Related Compounds

Biochemistry
Functionality

Alkylphenols and Related Compounds

Biochemistry
Functionality

Flavonoids and Related Compounds

Biochemistry
Functionality

Lignans

Biochemistry
Functionality

Aminophenolics

Biochemistry
Functionality

Phenolic Acid Amides, Esters, and Polymeric Ethers

Phenolic Acids Conjugated with Amines
Phenolic Esters with n-Alkanols
Phenolic Esters with Sugars and Polysaccharides
Phenolic Polymeric Ethers and Lignin

Summary and Future Research Directions


CHAPTER 11

Oat ß-Glucan: Properties and Function

Occurrence and Location
Extraction

General Considerations and Principles
Methods and Reagents

Purification
Analysis
Physicochemical Properties

Structure
Molecular Weight and Conformation
Solubility
Rheology
Dye Binding

Physiological Effects of Oat ß-Glucan

Animal and in Vitro Studies
Human Clinical Studies

Summary


CHAPTER 12

Oats as a Functional Food for Health

Blood Lipid Effects in Animals

Rats
Chicks, Rabbits, and Hamsters

Blood Lipid Effects in Humans

Factors Affecting Blood Lipid Response
Blood Lipid Fractions, Particle Size, and Number
Mechanisms for Decreasing Blood Lipids

Blood Glucose and Insulin Response in Humans

Factors Affecting Response
Mechanisms
Summary of Glycemic Response Effects

Blood Pressure
Conclusions


CHAPTER 13

Current and Potential Health Claims for Oat Products

Purpose and Impact of Health Claims
Scientific Substantiation of Health-Related Claims in the United States

Health Claims
Structure/Function Claims
Nutrient Content Claims

Authorized Health Claims in the United States That Oat Products May Utilize

Oat Soluble Fiber and the Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease (NLEA Claim)
Whole-Grain Claims Based on Authoritative Statements
Other Eligible NLEA Health Claims
Potential Claim Evidence for Diabetes Risk Reduction and Diabetes Management
Potential Claim Evidence for Satiety and Weight Loss Effects
Potential Claim Evidence for Whole Grains and Weight Maintenance
Potential Claim

Evidence for Blood Pressure Effects
Approved Oat and Whole-Grain Health Claims in Other Countries

Europe
Malaysia

Conclusions


CHAPTER 14

Oat Milling: Specifications, Storage, and Processing

Milling-Oat Specifications
Oat Storage and Handling
Oat Milling

Milling Overview
Cleaning
Grading
Dehulling
Kiln Drying
Processing of Dried Groats
Oat-Milling By-Products

Summary and Discussion


CHAPTER 15

Oat Dietary Fiber: Commercial Processes and Functional Attributes

Methods to Enrich ß-Glucan and Improve Functionality

Dry-Milling Methods
Methods Incorporating Organic Solvents
Aqueous Methods
Methods That Use Enzymes
Extraction Methods Utilizing Acid or Base Conditions or Temperature

Oat-Hull Fiber
Summary


CHAPTER 16

Flavor and Texture in Processing of New Oat Foods

Effect of Processing on Oat Flavor

Flavor of Native Oats
Effect of Toasting on Flavor
Effect of Malting on Flavor
Effect of Additional Heat Processing on Milled Oat Flavor

Influence of Storage on Product Quality

Changes in Flavor of Oat Products During Storage
Microbiological Quality

Effect of Processing on Oat Texture

General Factors Affecting Texture
Texture of Processed Oats

The Potential and The Challenges of Oats in Foods

End Uses and Consumer Perception of Oats
Incorporation of Oat Fractions into Foods and Health Claims

Future of Oat Products


CHAPTER 17

Oat Utilization: Past, Present, and Future

Products and Applications in Foods

Traditional Oat Products
Food Applications
Oat-Based Functional Food Ingredients

Health Benefits Associated with Oat Consumption

Health Benefits and Claims
Micronutrients
Celiac Disease

Miscellaneous Oat Applications

Oat Antioxidants
Adhesives
Cosmetic Products
Cariostatic Properties
Furfural Synthesis
Miscellaneous Oat Hull Applications
Oat Enzymes
Pharmaceutical Products

Summary


Index

“As in all volumes of this series, the coverage is encyclopedic and many cereal scientists will need to look no further for their day-to-day requirements. It is difficult to envisage that any serious competing volumes on oats will be published in the near future and I anticipate using my copy on a regular basis for many years.”
—Journal of Cereal Science

Publish Date: 2011
Format: 8.5" x 11" hardcover
ISBN: 978-1-891127-64-9
Pages: 376
Images: 26 color images; 96 black and white images
Publication Weight: 4 lbs

Edited by Francis H. Webster and Peter J. Wood

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